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R Street's Kevin Kosar Interviewed About Moonshine

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R Street’s Kevin Kosar was interviewed by Live Science about mooshine and whether it is safe to drink. As Kosar noted, Moonshine can be made from a variety of products and it’s most likely to exist in places that put up high bariers to legalized alcohol:

What is moonshine? Broadly, moonshine is any type of distilled liquor that's manufactured without government oversight, though some argue that moonshine can be labeled as such only when it is made with certain ingredients or comes from specific geographic regions, experts told Live Science.

People all over the world make and drink moonshine, particularly in places where alcohol is illegal or where legal alcohol is prohibitively expensive or hard to get…

ngredients for moonshine vary widely depending on what's available. In the early 20th century, American moonshiners typically made their brews from corn mash. But moonshine is also made from grapes, plums or apricots (Armenia), barley (Egypt), palm tree sap (Myanmar), bananas (Uganda) and cashew fruit (India), said Kevin Kosar, author of "Moonshine: A Global History" (Reaktion Books, 2017).

"It's just basic chemistry. If you can tease sugar out of something, you're on your way to making a drink," Kosar told Live Science…

Even when moonshine doesn't contain toxic levels of methanol, it's impossible to tell how strong it is — an uncertainty that could lead to accidental alcohol poisoning The best way for drinkers to stay safe is to give illicit alcohol a wide berth, Kosar said..

"Unless you're a close friend of the person producing the moonshine and have absolute trust in their competence to produce it, don't drink it," he warned.

Read the whole article here.

Where Did All The Bars and Taverns Go?

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This post was written by R Street Institute President Eli Lehrer.

Growing up in Chicago, I saw bars as a neighborhood institutions. Some served hot dogs or pizza puffs, but most were pure drinking places. As an adult, I’ve lived in Virginia, which requires all establishments with liquor licenses to have kitchens and derive at least 45 percent of sales from food and thus has no bars per se. Washington, D.C., where I’ve worked for 21 years now has a “tavern license” for places that want to emphasize drinks. But few exist. The Washingtonian magazine’s list of the Best Bars in Washington, D.C.includes only five District-located places that are bars without significant food menus. Indeed, many of the best known “bar” hangouts in the city like the Front Page and Union Pub have extensive menus. So, why?

Many obvious reasons don’t survive scrutiny. High D.C. rents can’t stop taverns alone since they thrive in places with even higher rents like San Francisco. Food produces another revenue and potential profit stream, of course, but that’s so everywhere. The non-family demographics of the city are similar to those of Manhattan, much of the Bay Area, Chicago’s North side, Seattle and dozens of other places with thriving bar scenes. And the idea that young professionals don’t like bars per se seems incorrect: alcohol use tends to decrease with age and people without families have more time to hang out at bars after work.

Instead, transience, immigration patterns and institutions seem to explain the District’s lack of bars. First transience. More  than 60 percent of the population of the District was born elsewhere and that percentage has risen in recent years. Only places with big retirement communities have as many transplants. Strong neighborhood institutions like taverns which must differentiate by vibe rather than menu (serving beer requires little skill and simple cocktails are hard to differentiate) aren’t going to thrive in places where people move.

The nature of immigration also matters. While D.C. did once attracted many people from Ireland, home to the world’s best-known pub culture, the city’s historic Irish neighborhood, Swampoodle now exists only in a park’s name. Modern D.C. attracts relatively few immigrants and the group of new arrivals most prominent as hospitality entrepreneurs--Ethiopians--come from a country with a large Muslim population and thus little bar culture.

Finally, the District’s unique Advisory Neighborhood Commissions (ANCs) present a barrier with their de facto veto over new liquor licenses. This makes taverns’ entire business subject to an additional obstacle. My colleague Nick Zaiac points out that for an ANC member (each of whom represents about 2,000 people) helping to block a bar might add political capital in a way that it wouldn’t for a council member representing a larger district.

Bottom line: D.C.’s culture and its institutions just aren’t friendly to taverns. And this probably isn’t going to change.





California Tries to Legalize Wine (and Beer) Volunteers Based on R Street Recommendation

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Small wineries and breweries throughout the country often use volunteers to help produce and package their products. Doing so both supplies these small producers with extra labor and allows the volunteers (who are often craft beverage enthusiasts) to learn more about the production process. In California, however, the use of volunteers is technically a violation of the state’s labor code, and the state’s Department of Industrial Relations has previously slapped hefty fines on California wineries for using volunteers. R Street’s Western Region Director Steven Greenhut wrote about this issue back in 2014, and now, directly inspired by Steve’s column, state lawmakers are trying to fix the problem. Their new bill would exempt small wineries and microbreweries from this provision of the state labor code, and Steve submitted a letter of support on behalf of R Street for the reform:

I write you in support of S.B. 448, legislation that “would exempt a small winery or small microbrewery … that utilizes volunteers who perform part-time labor in exchange for hands-on training, from having these volunteers classified as employees or apprentices.”

These small wineries and breweries clearly deserve an exemption from this section of the labor code given that many people like the opportunity to volunteer at these businesses to learn about the trade. Such volunteers typically are older people who enjoy the wine and brewery culture. They aren’t interested in the money, but in learning about the fascinating process of making wine and beer. In fact, I’ve volunteered at a winery before with my church group where we picked grapes and made our own wine as part of an indescribably enjoyable afternoon…

Read the letter of support here, and Steve’s 2014 column that inspired the law here.